1. chat vi.&n. 聊天;闲聊


1). What were you chatting to him about? 2). I had a long chat with her (about her job).


chat to/with sb (about sth) = have a chat with sb (about sth) 与某人聊天、闲谈……

2. eastward adv. 向东 adj. 向东的;朝东的


1). They were traveling eastward(s) to the city which appeared in their dreams. 他们朝着东边向梦想中的城市进发。

2). The plane flied in an eastward direction. [词语归纳]

eastward(s) adj./adv. 向东的,向东地 westward(s) adj./adv. 向西的,向西地

southward(s) adj./adv. 向南的,向南地

northward(s) adj./adv. 向北的,向北地

southeastward(s) adj./adv. 向东南的,向东南地

northeastward(s) adj./adv. 向东北的,向东北地

southwestward(s) adj./adv. 向西南的,向西南地

northwestward(s) adj./adv. 向东北的,向东北地

3. surround vt.&vi. 包围;围绕 surrounding adj. 周围的 surroundings (常用pl.)环境


1). Trees surround the pond.

2). The house was surrounded by high walls.


surround...with... 用……包围……

be surrounded by/with... 周围都是……

4. measure vi.&vt. 测量;衡量;判定 n.[c,u] 尺寸;量具;计量单位;措施


1). Can you measure accurately with this ruler? 用这把尺子能量得准吗?

2). It’ s hard to measure his ability when we haven’ t seen his work. 没有见过他的作品, 很难估计他的能力。


measure A by B 用B衡量A sth. measures 2 metres by 4 metres 某物长4米宽2米

measure sb. for a suit = make a suit to sb’ s measure 给某人量身做一套衣服

5. mix vt.&vi. 混合;调配 mixture n.[u,c] 混合(物);混合状态


1). The chemist mixed (up) some medicine for me.

2). Oil and water don’ t mix.

3). Oil won’ t mix with water.



mix A and/with B 把甲与乙拌和起来 mix sth. up 把某物拌和;混淆某物

mix sth. in/into把某物掺进去 be/get mixed up with sth./sb. 与某事有关;与某人混在一起

6. nearby adj.附近的;邻近的 adv.在附近


1). Her mother lived in a nearby town. 2). Her mother lived nearby.



如: There were complaints from nearby residents / residents nearby.

7. terrify vt.使恐怖;恐吓 terrified adj.恐惧的;受惊吓的 terrifying adj.(令人)可怕的


1). He terrified his children with ghost stories.

2). Her husband’ s violence terrified her. 她丈夫的暴力使她感到恐惧。


be terrified at/by sth. 被某事(物)恐吓 be terrified of sth. = be afraid of 害怕某事(物)

8. impress vt.使印象深刻;使铭记 impression n.[c]印象;感想 impressive adj.给人印象深刻的


1). The sights of the city never fail to impress foreign tourists. 外国游客无一不对该市留有深刻印象。

2). We were most impressed with/by your efficiency. 你的工作效率很高,我们极为钦佩。


impress sth. on/upon sb. = impress sb. with/by sth. 使某人铭记某事物

make/give/crate an impression on/upon... 给……一个印象

have/get the impression that 有……的印象



如:常用词组有: at noon, at night

表示时间的 at, in, on:表示片刻的时间,at 8 o’clock,at midnight, at the end of, at that time, at the beginning of, at the age of, at Christmas, at New Year 等。

in 表示一段的时间

如:in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in October, in 1998, in summer, in the past, in the future 等。

on 总是跟日子有关,on Monday, on Christmas morning, on the following, on May Day, on a warm morning 等。

2、表示时间的 since 和 from:since 表示从过去到现在的一段时间的过程,常与现在完成时连用:from 表示从时间的某一点开始,不涉及与现在的关系。一般多与现在时、过去时、将来时连用。

如:I hope to do morning exercises from today./ We have not seen each other since 1995.

3、表示时间的 in 和 after:两者都表示“在(某个时间)之后,区别在于in表示“在(一段时间)之后” ,而 after 则表示“在(某一具体时间点之后),in 短语和将来时态连用,after 短语和过去时态或将来时态连用。

如:We’ll be back in three days.

After seven the rain began to fall.

What shall we do after graduation?

After two months he returned. 注意:after 有时也可以表示在一段时间之后(常用在过去时里)

4、表示地理位置的 in, on, to:in 表示在某范围内,on 指与什么毗邻,to 指在某环境范围之外

如:Changchun is in the northeast of China./ Mongolia is on the north of China./ Japan is tothe east of China.

5、表示“在……上”的 on 和 in:on 只表示在某物的表面上,而用 in 表示占去某物一部分,表示……上。

如:There is a book on the piece of paper./ There is an interesting article in the newspaper./ He dug a hole in the wall.



1. 一般过去时的定义

一般过去时表示过去某一时候或某一段时间所发生了的事情或存在的状态。常与过去时间yesterday, this morning, just now, a moment ago, in May, last night / year / week, once upon a time, the other day, before …, when – clause, in the past连用。如:

What did you do yesterday? 昨天你干了什么?

I met Lin Tao this morning. 今天上午我会到了林涛。

I was there a moment ago. 刚才我在那儿。

2. 一般过去时的应用

(1) 表示过去某时所发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

Liu Ying was in America last year. 刘英去年在美国。

Jim rang you just now. 吉姆刚才给你打了电话。

(2) 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。常接时间副词often, usually, always, sometimes, every day / week, etc. 如:

We often went out for a walk after supper. 我们过去常在晚饭后散步。

We usually played together. 我们通常一起玩。

3. 一般过去时对谓语动词的要求



(1) 一般在动词后加-ed。如:play—played, offer—offered, weigh—weighed, destroy— destroyed, sign—signed.

(2) 在以字母e结尾的动词后,只加-d。如:like—liked, provide—provided, hate — hated, date—dated。

(3) 在以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词后,则改y为i,再加—ed。如:supply—supplied, fly—flied, study— studied.

(4) 在以单短元音的重读闭音节结尾且,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ed。如:plan—planned, refer—referred, regret—regretted, ban—banned.

4. 特别说明

有些动词的过去时,如:expect, hope, intend, plan, wanted 等一般过去时,后接不定式的完成时;或它们的过去完成时接不定式的一般式,都可表示过去未曾实现的意图、打算或希望。如:

I hoped to have been invited to his wedding party. —I had hoped to be invited to his wedding ceremony. 我本希望他来邀请我参加他的婚礼。

I intended to have joined their games. —I had intended to join their games. 我本打算参加他们的比赛。


1. 现在完成进行时的定义


We have been waiting for him for two hours. 我们等他等了两个小时。

2. 现在完成进行时的结构

现在完成进行时由“have /has been + 现在分词”构成。

3. 现在完成进行时的应用

现在完成进行时所用的时间状语:this month / week / year, these days, recently / lately, in the past few + 时间段, since +时间点, for + 时间段。如:

They have been building the bridge for two month. 两个月来他们一直在修桥。

They have been planting trees this month. 这个月来他们一直在植树。

4. 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别

(1) 现在完成时强调动作的完成,而现在完成进行时强调动作的延续,因此,表示动作的完成,只能用现在完成时,而不能用现在完成进行时。如:

He has changed his idea. 他改变了想法。

(2) 在表示动作的延续时,虽然既可用现在完成时,也可用现在完成进行时,但现在完成进行时强调动作的进行。因此在需要明确表示动作还要持续下去时,应用现在完成进行时。如:

We have been studying here for two years. 我们在这儿已经学习了两年了。

(3) 有些延续性动词(如 keep, learn, live, stay, study, work等),用于现在完成时或现在完成进行时的区别不大。如:

I have lived here for many years.=I have been living here for many years. 我在这儿住了多年了。